Shivaree is the most common American regional form of charivari,a word of French origin meaning "a noisy mock serenade for newlyweds." In thepast, shivarees were given to married couples who were thought to bemismatched or to people whose conduct was considered scandalous. The Frenchterm probably derives from the Late Latin word meaning "headache," carībaria,which in turn is from Greek karēbariā, a compound of karē, "head," and barus,"heavy." English shivaree, most likely borrowed from French traders and settlersalong the Mississippi River, was well established in the United States by 1805.The word shivaree is especially common along and west of the Mississippi River.Its use thus forms a dialect boundary running north-south, dividing western usagefrom eastern. This is unusual in that most dialect boundaries run east-west,dividing the country into northern and southern dialect regions. Some regionalequivalents are belling, used in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, andMichigan; horning, from upstate New York, northern Pennsylvania, and westernNew England; and serenade, a term used chiefly in the South Atlantic states.